illusory lines.. light

Chapter Six

"EARTH's.. Sky-Light" ROAD   
"The Lens is the Culprit,
And the Deception is the Crime."

Figure 4 is reproduced from the 1930 original released to the science editors of press syndicates in NewYork City. It is intended to show lens deceptions experienced in all observations of the Earth's luminous outer sky surface from stratosphere darkness and from other land areas of the Universe. It was also intended to indicate the lens deceptions resulting from telescopic observation of luminous celestial areas.

Though the drawing was made prior to any confirming photographs of  stratosphere ascension or rocket flights, it may now be viewed as reality, because of  the V-2-rocket photographic confirmation since October, 1946. 

1) The  land  area,  as  indicated at  the bottom  of  the draw-ing,  represents  the  accustomed  location  in  our observation of the familiar blue sky between New York City  and  Chicago.  In  looking  up,  or  out,  from  such land positions—or  from any other  land position of the Earth—we  observe  the  blue  sky  of  varying  depth,  or density, from time to time and from place to place.

2)  The  sharp  norizonal  curves  are  never  experienced with  such  sharp  angles.  The  abrupt  termination  of  the horizon  is  here  required  to  complete  the  illustration.  It  imposes  lines  of demarcation between  the  various  land  communities.  It  also  permits  simultaneous  view  of  inner  and outer sky curvature. The outer are to be observed only from stratosphere darkness and from other land areas of the Universe.

3) The  region between  represents  the  seven-  to  ten-mile distance from  land to blue sky. The distance varies over the Earth,  and  over  the  Universe  whole.  Inhabitants  of  other land areas of  the Universe can view no other blue  sky  than their own. They cannot see our immediate blue sky, but they do  see  our  outer  sky  surface  as  we  see  their  outer  sky surface.  At  night,  they  view  our  sky's  outer  surface  areas, and  every  sky  area,  as  here  depicted,  is  luminous  and  deceptively globular. Hence  the deceptive globularity  imposes the appearance of isolation. Accordingly, our terrestrial area appears  to  other  inhabitants  of  the  Universe  as  the  same isolated "stars" and "planets" as  their areas appear  to our observation. Our sky areas make their "Heavens above," as their sky areas make our "Heavens above".

4) The dark area of  the  illustration above  the  sky areas represents the stratosphere, which extends indefinitely. As is encroaches upon terrestrial sky areas, it likewise exists over all other sky areas of the Universe.

5) The luminous and disk-like outer sky areas show how the gaseous blue sky of terrestrial land observation becomes luminous  against  the  dark  stratosphere. The  lens  detecting such  luminous  areas,  which  we  definitely  know  are  not globular and  isolated,  is compelled by  its  function  to create the  curves  that  produce  the  luminous  disk  areas  as  illustrated.  Each  disk  area  must,  as  previously  explained,  impose that further illusion of a body. The celestial "bodies" of astronomy are precisely what the illustration describes.

Hence from a distance we see the illustration's luminous disk-like areas as true disk surfaces. Likewise do we observe luminous celestial  sky  surface areas,  the  so-called "stars" and "planets" of astronomical assumption. And inhabitants of celestial land areas view luminous areas of our sky in precisely  the  same  manner  as  we  observe  luminous  areas  of their sky. In sharing our lens illusions, as they must, they manner that we have been deprived of physical journey to their land.   

Since the drawing could have no purpose if the complete disks were  shown,  it  portrays  only  half  disks,  or  a  series  of luminous arcs. That is all that is really required, inasmuch as that  alone  is what  the most  powerful  telescopes  are  able  to detect throughout the Universe. If the lower blue-sky areas of the  illustration were obscured as one held the illus-tration at arm's  length  and  observed  from  the  top  of  the  page,  one would  discern  that  any  area  shown would  appear  as  a  disk from  distant  observation.  As  explained  earlier,  when  that deceptive  lens-formed  disk  area  is  detected,  the  mind automatically  supplies  the  fullness which  completes  the disk and imposes the delusion of a "globe body". Every luminous outer sky area of the Earth and the Universe about the Earth must, through lens function and only thereby, be de-tected as a disk-like area  illustratively presented, and  it  is  then assumed to  be  a  globe,  and  the  illusory  globe  must  appear  to  be isolated. 

It should be understood that every luminous arc, or disk-like sky area as  illustrated, possesses width as well as  length. Since  there  are  nine  luminous  sky  areas  in  the  distance,  or length,  of  stratosphere  course  from New York City  tD Chicago,  each  area  should  be  considered  approximately  one hundred and eleven miles  in diameter,  to make  the approximate thousand miles between New York City and Chicago. It may be considered that  in the flight machine photographing that  sky  course  there  will  be  a  lens  of  sufficient  power  to embrace  an  area  one  hundred  and  eleven  miles  wide. 

Accordingly,  as  this  particular  stratosphere  tourney  to Chicago extends in north to northwesterly direction, there would be  photographed  nine  luminous,  globular,  and  isolated "bodies" on  the direct course. And photographs made at an angle  to  the  direct  course  would  show  numerous  other luminous  rounded  and  isolated  "bodies",  their  number  depending on stratosphere altitude and camera lens power plus the photographing angle. The intensity of gaseous sky content prevailing at the time of photographing would likewise  Influence  the  number  of  "bodies"  to  be  detected  by the camera lens.

The group arrangement of Figure 4  is  intended  to convey how every  luminous terrestrial sky area would appear; but  such  necessary  illustrative  grouping  of  sky  areas  does not permit  the  luminous  sky  areas  to be  separated,  or  isolated,  as  they  will  appear  from  distant  observation.  It should be understood that, when observed  individually, the lumi-nous curving-down of each depicted sky area causes it deceptively  to  appear  separated  and  isolated  as  a  distinct unit, or "body". No  lens  can detect  and  record more  than one of the luminous disk areas at a given time. That feature, as previously shown, was proved by the U.S. Navy's rocket-camera photographs of  luminous  terrestrial  sky areas over White Sands, New Mexico, and adjacent territory. 

As  the  illustration's  thousand-mile  photographing experi-ment Is in progress from New York City to Chicago, other  similar  experiments  over  the  sky  of  corresponding thousand-mile areas can be moving in the stratosphere from Los Angeles  and  from Montreal, London, Berlin, Moscow, and  Rome.  They  would  all  be  procuring  identical photographs over their respective luminous sky areas. There could  be  variation  in  the  quality  and  the  quantity  of  light shading  and  distortion  in  some  photographs  over  different sky  areas.  If  the  cameras  of  the  different  photographing expeditions possessed varying  lens power,  that would result in there being more or less luminous and isolated terrestrial sky-area  "globes"  photographed  over  different  routes. However,  If  the  same  lens  power  is  utilized  in  all  cameras over  all  routes  and  if  the  same  altitude  is maintained,  the photographic results will be approximately the same. 

The  qualification,  approximately,  is  In  order  because  conditions prevailing at the time of photographing some thousand-mile areas would vary with conditions prevailing elsewhere and with those of the thousand-mile area from which the numerical standard  was  developed. Gaseous  condition  of  the  various luminous sky areas could influence detection or mitigate against the possibility of detecting certain sky armeas. The photographing angle would also ouulillmie to numerical finding. 

Thus,  at  this  point  one may  have  acquired  some  vague concept of the deceptive isolated terrestrial Universe that our luminous  outer  sky  areas  present  to  all  observers  from beyond  the Earth, One needs out briefly  consider  the number  of  luminous  isolated  "globes"  to  be  detected  over  a single  thousand-mile  area  of  the  Earth's  entire  luminous outer sky surface. Naturally, the number of isolated "globes" to be detected can be expected  to vary depending upon  lens power, restricting angles of  lens  focus, ana  conditions  existing  at  various  terrestrial  sky  areas.  In  the  latter  consideration,  stratosphere  elements  and  gaseous  sky  content  and expression would be factors. 

It is reasonable to assume that a lens with greater power will embrace a wider terrestrial sky area than a weaker lens can. But the more powerful lens cannot detect as many "isolated globes" over a restricted  sky area because of  the  fact that, by embracing a  larger sky area,  there will be an overlapping  of  the more  numerous  areas  to  be  detected  by  the weaker  lens. Where  the weaker  lens might  show  twenty  or more isolated sky areas in one hundred miles of sky surface, the  stronger  lens might  be  expected  to  detect  only  ten  or twelve, or even fewer. 

However,  the  numbers  here  used  are meaningless  other than  for  comparison. No numerical accuracy  is  intended or required.  The  primary  and  broader  purpose  of  the  1930 illustration was to express that all astronomical observations of so-called stellar areas are products of the Inescapable lens deceptions  which  must  be  duplicated  in  every  detail  in telescopic  observation  and  photography  of  luminous  outer sky surface areas of the Earth, Realization of lens deceptions in  the  sky  over  our  own  back  yard  eloquently  proves  that telescopic  observations  of  the  osjssetasl  deal  only  with  unrounded and connected celestial  sky  surface areas. And  it  is the Individual concept which mistakenly "bestows the statue of 'globe' on celestial  sky  surface areas after  the detecting  lens has provided the area with a disk appearance". 

There should be great need for stressing this factor after three  hundred  yean  of  mathematical  astronomy  which,  in detecting  some  and  conjecturing  other  luminous  surface areas of  the celestial sky, has developed  the dictum extraordinary  that  the  disk  area  of  lens production  is  actually  the "globe" which concept harbors. To avoid possibility of mis-understanding  this paramount-  feature dealing with  illusion and  delusion,  it may  be  further  clarified  as  follows:  The unreal  "globe' which was  sired  by  the  unreal  disk  (because the lens alone was responsible for the disk) is astronomically established as a factual entity in the world of things. Is it not astounding? 

Fortunately,  current  rocket-camera  photographs  of luminous  outer  terrestrial  sky  surface  areas  make  it possible  for  the  first  time  in history  to  check and  compare astronomical  observations.  That  checking  and  comparing was  denied  to  telescopic  observation  for  many  centuries. And it has since been denied to astronomy's hired assistants, telescopic  pho-tography  and  spectroscopic  analysis. However, it has now proved the complete fantasy of isolated globes or spheres circling or ellipsing in space."

Though the unprecedented opportunity for checking and comparing assumed  conditions or celestial  finding with  factual  conditions  of  terrestrial  finding  is  now  available  to astronomy,  it  is  questionable  if  the  astronomical  fraternity will take advantage of it "We see onlv that which we want to see.  And  we  believe  no  more  than  that  which  we  want  to believe." Hence, primed observations are as dubious as spies. Nevertheless,  though primed observations may be known to be so untrustworthy, such primed observations are retained as companions because that seems to be the easiest course. To reject them would impose an effort and a responsibility, 

Since  rocket-camera  photographs  have  established  that the  deceptions  of  lens  function  are  inescapable,  it  follows that, once the telescopic finding is accepted at its face value, deducing robots  instead of human astronomers may as well check the lens findings. What the astronomers may interpret of the telescopic-photographic plates becomes entirely irrelevant,  if  the  lens error reproduced on  the plates  is accepted as fact. Alas, the astronomer seems to be painfully reluctant to admit that proof of the error is at hand.   

It is pertinent to explain that the identical spectrum variations of celestial analysis, will be found to apply to luminous outer  surface  sky  areas  of  the  Earth.  The  same misinterpretation of values will ensue. And with realization of  the  terrestrial  sky  areas  factual  values,  the misinterpretation of celestial values should become manifest. 
Though  terrestrial sky areas are known  to be continuous and  holding  their  allotted  place  in  the  Universe  structure, their billowing or fluctuating within  the cosmic area of  their original  construction  and  placement  will  be  accredited  the same  fantastic motions astronomically prescribed  for  the  so-called  "stars"  and  "planets"  of  celestial  sky  areas.  When terrestrial sky areas are analyzed from the same distance and with the same astronomical equipment, their gaseous content and movement will  produce  all  that which  celestial  sky  gas produces  for  spectrum  analysis  of  terrestrial  astronomers. 

However, from our celestial observatory we would not dream of interpreting the spectrum recordings as astrono-mers now interpret  the  recordings  from  celestial  sky  areas.  With knowledge of our terrestrial sky we would know better. Thus, returning  to  the  illustrative  thousand-mile  course  of terrestrial  sky-fight  illusions,  we  find  that  the  stratosphere journey from New York City to Chicago at an altitude of one Hundred miles or more must develop  the  following observational and photographic conclusions: The deceptively globular and isolated luminous sky areas would require seeing  the "planet" of New York City. Then, in  the  order  designated,  there would  be  seen  the  "star"  of Albany  and  the  planets"  or  "stars"  of  Utica,  Syracuse, Rochester, and Buffalo. Then at an angle from the main line of  perpendicular  observation  over  the  cities  of  New  York State would  be  observed  the  "star"  of Erie,  Pennsylvania. As the course continued toward Chicago there the "planets" of  Cleveland  and  Detroit  would  loom.  Other  vague  "star" scatterings would be observable in all directions away  from  the  direct  course  being  photographed  on  the perpendicular.   

Every thousand-mile area of the luminous terrestrial sky would present  the  same deceptive appearance. And  the  sky areas would  show  corresponding  celestial  sky  variations  of luminosity due to variations of the chemical content and gaseous  activity  of  the  respective  terrestrial  sky  areas. (Though  this may be repetitious,  it should here be explained that the familiar blue sky's  varying depth,  or blueness,  ob-servable  from  time  to  time  and from place  to place at  the  same  time, actuates variation  of  the outer sky's luminosity).

The following feature also serves as an agent for the lens developed  illusions of  record. The  torrid  equatorial and  the frigid  Arctic  and  Antarctic  sky  areas  would  oe  shown  to possess  marked  difference  in  the  depth  of  their  luminosity when compared with  the  luminosity of Temperate Zone  sky areas.  That  would  mean  very  little  if  the  Universe  whole contained but one torrid and two frigid zones as now known at  terrestrial  level. However,  the  zones of  the  terrestrial are duplicated  over  and  over  again  throughout  the  Universe whole.  That  factor  influences  difference  in  light  waves  and colors now  registered  from  luminous  sky  areas of  the  celestial  which  ere  otherwise  of  the  same  composition.  Corresponding  differences  for corresponding  reasons  would  be shown to develop from terrestrial sky areas. 

Were  we  to  increase  the  hundred-mile  altitude  to  five thousand miles, the sky area of the illustration's course from New  York  City  to  Chicago  would  loom  as  a  wide  layer  of "stars." Then, as our  telescope was adjusted at an angle for observation of the sky territory northeast of New York Cfty, there  would  be  detected  sky  area  "stars"  of  Connecticut, Rhode  Island,  and Massachusetts.  The  number  of  "stars", "star  clusters", and "double  stars"  to be detected over  that sky  area would depend  on  lens power  and other  conditions previously described. 

The extent of our  stratosphere  search  for  terrestrial sky "stars" could continue over the Atlantic Ocean beyond Boston. "Stars" detected at such points would represent the rimof  the  terrestrial stars area first detected at New York City. And detection of "sour'' would not be  restricted  to a direct eastern area. As it embraced the area from New York City to Boston In an easterly direction, It would also embrace a wide area  in  a  northerly  direction  to  the Canadian  border  and south to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Under  telescopic  observation  some  sky  areas  would  become  vaguer, whue others of  the  same  area would be more luminous. The more  luminous might  appear at  the Atlantic Ocean  rim,  and  the  vaguest  might  be  detected  in  near-by Connecticut. Other sky-light areas would appear so vague as to make  for  the  determination  that  no  sky  luminosity,  and therefore no sky, existed at such points. The detection of sky luminosity,  celestial  and  terrestrial,  does  not  depend  solely upon distance from the observing point.

Nortn,  east,  south,  and  west,  our  terrestrial  sky  light would  reproduce  that  which  is  presented  by  celestial  light. The extent of our view, of  the Earth  sky's "Heavens above" would  depend  on  the  angle  of  observation  in  the  stratosphere,  the power of  the detecting  lens, and  the gaseous condition  of  the most  remote  sky  areas  at  the  time  of observation. At altitudes of one thousand to five thousand miles in the stratosphere,  the  most  powerful  telescopic  lenses  and  their companion  camera  lenses  would  likewise  record  all  the grotesque  entities  presently  recorded  of  the  luminous  outer sky  surface  areas  over  the  land  of  other  parts  of  the  Universe. Such recording would be of sky areas over  the known land  of  New  York,  Connecticut,  Rhode  Island,  and Massachusetts,  as  well  as  over  the  water  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean. Hence  they  could  readily be determined  as  the  illusory  condition  considered  to  be  real  when  the  same  entities  are observed over celestial land areas. 

The astronomically recorded "Horse's Head  in  the great nebula In Orion" and "the spiral nebulae in Cygnus" would be reproduced in certain terrestrial sky areas where the play of  sky  gases  plus  lens  magnification  would  develop  such gaseous formations. And if the light distortion appealing as a dark form in the terrestrial sky area was not defined as the "Horse's  Head"  in  the  celestial  sky  light  of  astronomy's Orion,  it could readily be designated something else related to  horse  anatomy.  Such  designation would  not  obscure  the fact that it is nothing but sky-light distortion.

That which applies to the dark formation in luminous sky area  likewise  applies  to  the  white  formation  in  the astronomical "nebula of Cygnus". The ectoplasm-like white veil, or film, of the Cygnus sky-light area will be duplicated In terrestrial sky light It may be found to develop in the sky light  making  the  "stars"  of  Portland,  Old  Orchard, and Kennebunk, Maine. Or it could as readily be observed in the terrestrial  sky-light  "star"  of  Kalamazoo, Michigan,  That sky-gas condition which astronomy  is pleased to describe as the "nebula of Cygnus" has already been photographed in the luminous  terrestrial  sky  over  White  Sands,  New  Mexico. And  it could be reproduced  in ever  so many  terrestrial  sky areas under conditions favorable to its formation. 

Another interesting observation from the haloed realm of astronomical deduction  is  that dealing with  the "nebula M-31 in Andromeda." Though it is conveniently mathematized as being  thirty-five hundred million  times  the weight of  the Sun,  it  can  be  readily  dissipated  under  lens magnification. This expresses' the ultimate of abstraction in the application of  abstract  mathematics.  Despite  such  estimated  sky-gas weight, a telescopic lens can dissipate the so-called "nebula" formation.  Yet  trie  lens  cannot  penetrate  through  the  gas density to the underlying land. 

The depth of abstraction becomes evident as one realizes that  there  cannot  possibly  be  an  authentic  gauge  for the Sun's mass. And  any weight  estimate  is  absurd. Though it fits the Universe of Illusion, it can have no application to the Universe  of  reality.  It  is  comparable to an  estimate  concerning the birth and ancestry of God. One need not burden conceptional capacity  in a  forlorn attempt  to determine  the meaning of that figure thirty-five hundred million times the weight of the Sun.

Regardless of how one cares to view the application of abstract mathematics and the real meaning of so-called "nebula",  the  paramount  fact  remains  that  no  sky-gas motion,  seeming  or  real,  has  any  bearing  whatever  on  the realistic  connected  land  existing  under  all  sky  areas.  For reasons abundantly disclosed, sky areas must be considered isolated. The art of astronomy, though impotent to penetrate the  gaseous  celestial  sky  envelope,  regardless  of  what  its density may  be,  is  restricted  to  observation  and  analysis  of luminous Sky-areas and  the movement  of  their gases. And astronomy  s  failure  to  grant  that  "nebula"  is  an  aspect  of sky-gas  motion  fosters  gross  misinterpretation  of  cosmic values. 

Experimentation proves  that  in observation of  light and luminous areas there will at times be formed grotesque creations.  At  other  times  the  formations  will  be  dissipated. It depends considerably  on  the  angle  of  observation,  the gaseous  movement  of  the  luminous  area  at  the  time  of observation, and the amount of magnification of the light or luminous area.   

Microscopic  observations  clearly  express  such  features, though there exists in microscopy a possibility of error which is infinitesimal in comparison with the unlimited possibilities for  telescopy. Observations  of  a microscopic  field  establish that  too  much  magnification  of  the  field's  specimen  will cause  it  to  be  obscured, whereas  a  different  light  quantity will dis-tort the specimen.   Hence in a factual study of lens capaciousness it is established  that  the  important  feature  is  not  so  much  what  is observed but,  rather,  how and under what  conditions observations are made.

In  spite of  claims  to  the  contrary, abstract mathematics and  their  competent mechanical  aids  and  guides  can  in  no way  correct  the  structurally  inherent  lens  culpability.  Size and power of a  lens has nothing to do with the error of lens principle. A  thousand-inch  lens  cannot  eliminate  the  error, out it can and will "magnify the error".

From the enviable thousand-mile observation point in the stratosphere,  the  "Heavens  above"  would  be  observed everywhere and at every angle of observation. Every luminous outer sky area over the entire Earth, or as much of the Earth s sky that could be detected, would present a vista of the "Heavens above". The terrestrial appearance in no way differs  from  that  of  celestial  sky  areas  observed  from  the terrestrial. The rhythmic  shift of  light motion within  some luminous  outer  sky  areas  of  the  terrestrial  would  also present the same characteristics under spectrum analysis as presently  found  in  the  light of celestial  sky areas. And  that correspond-ing  activity  would  cause  it  to  appear  that  the "star" of East St Louis, or  some other  terrestrial  sky area, would  be  burning  up  its  terrestrial  orbit  at  a  devastating rate. And  it would  deceptively  appear  to  be  circling  toward our observation point in the stratosphere. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  might  appear  to  be  as  rapidly receding  from our position and away from  its normal  location. The  appearance  of  approaching  or  receding  would depend  upon  the  intensity  and motion  of  sky  gases  at  that particular  place  when  observation  was  made.  Such condition  would  deceptively  appear  when  in  fact  nothing was  going  anywhere,  either  toward  or  away  from  our stratosphere observation point. 

Some terrestrial sky areas would seem to flicker, or fluctuate. The  motion  of  some  areas  would  appear  to  be constant and therefore imperceptible as motion. The motion of others would appear to be variable. And the constancy or variability of terrestrial sky-light morion would correspond to  that recorded by  the  light curves  from celestial  sky-light areas.  However,  with  the  physical  knowledge  possessed  of our Earth's  sky, no reasoning person  could ever ascribe  to such motions  of  terrestrial  sky  light  that which  astronomy interprets from identical motions in celestial sky light. 

Celestial and  terrestrial sky  luminosity and  the motions of such light have a common heritage. They are of the same Universe  family.  Further,  one  is  as  continuous  with  the other  as  the  circulating  blood  of  the  human  body  which actuates  the  left  side as well as  the  right  side, and  thereby nourishes the entire body. 

Mathematical astronomy has not, and will not, detect that obvious continuity feature from lenses and figures. That feature, being of the Universe of reality, was not entrusted to the  uncertainty  of  abstract  figures  and  symbols. Though such  figures  and  symbols  are  endowed with  precision  and positiveness, the endowment applies to and Dements only the unreal mathematical Universe. 

In  analysis of  light waves  from  various  so-called "star" areas  of  the Universe  at  times  two  spectra  are  observed  to move back and forth. They prescribe, or there is prescribed, a waving or undulating motion of the sky light under analysis. The astronomer's conclusion must be that such duality of motion  presupposes  dual  entitles  in  motion.  He  does  not consider  the motions attributable  to sky gases. If he did, he would  be  empowered  to  consider many  other  features  this book  contains.  Instead,  when  spectroscopic  examination confirms the dual motion, the astronomer must assume that confirmation has been had of  two distinct entities, or "bodies," whereas  in  reality  all  that  the  astronomer's  eyes,  the telescope  and  earners,  the  spectrum  and  the  spectroscope, have  established  is  that  dual motion  is  taking  place  in  the celestial sky-light area. 

It  should be  further noted  that none of  the observations and tests have anything to do-wilhJand areas of the Universe underlying the sky light being tested. They are restricted to a determination of celestial sky-light content and activity. They are  impotent  to  deal  with  the  land  existent  under  the  sky light. Though there is land under all celestial and terrestrial sky light, there is no "body" in motion, to say nothing of two separate  "bodies"  in motion. The  ever-active  sky  gases  are responsible  for  all  detected  motion.  Other  factors may influence the portrait of motion which the lens detects. They also influence the spectrum. 

Hence  it  is  nothing  more  formidable  than  the  misinterpretation  of  sky-gas  motion  which  leads  to  the  conclusion  of "spectroscopic  binaries",  or  "double  stars", in mis particular instance of celestial sky-light analysis. Duality ot gas motion can exist But duality of "bodies" can never exist, for the reason that there are no celestial "bodies" to have motion. 

That  particular  astronomical  feature was  embraced  by  the original  treatise  Phytical  Continuum  as  early  as  1927. There  it was  disclosed  that  every  sky  area  of  the Earth would,  through the inundating motion of gaseous content, deceptively appear to be circling or  revolving. That 1927 claim has application  to  the entire  Universe. It  discounted  astronomical  interstellar  space and  the  circling  or  ellipslng  of  assumed  isolated "bodies" in restricted space orbits. Orbits are definitely not required for the motions of luminous sky eases over land areas that are connected throughout  the  Universe  and  are  not  "circling  or ellipsing  in space." 

Energy in motion is restricted to waves of varying length and  intensity. All of modern enterprise  establishes  that  feature  of natural  law. And  the  active  sky  gases of  the  terrestrial  and  the  celestial  conform  to  the  principle  of  motion. What deceptively appears to be happening should be known as illusory by modern astronomers. Then would they be able to discount the seeming celestial conditions which perpetuate and  enlarge  upon  the  primary  illusion  developed  by  lens function. 

Another  of  the  many  extra  ordinary  features  of  astro-mathematical confusion  is  that which grants  so-called "nebula" centers composed, of gas, and  then proceeds  to mathematize  that such gas  is formative  in  the stratosphere as  the nucleus of "star" matter. Such a wayward conclusion results from the fact that the central regions of some luminous celestial  sky areas under observation defy penetration and dissipation of their light by the most powerful lenses. Hence such concentrated  central  points  are mathematized  and  assumed to be something different and remote from the remainder of the sky area. 

This  observation  is  one  that  brings  mathematician-astronomers  to  the door of reason. But, alas,  they refuse  to enter.  Such  observation  should  show  that  the  substance, deceptively  appearing  to  be  formative  in  the  stratosphere and  apparently  alienated  from  the  central  luminous  sky area, is gas movement of the sky-light area. In a case of this kind the astronomer comes so close to the truth that it is painful  to realize how bis misconception of values demands that he adhere to the faulty premise and forsake the truth so glaringly presented.

It  seems  that  something  pertaining  here was mentioned about  two  thousand  years  ago  by  the  immortal Master of parables, who pronounced: "None are  so blind as  they who will not see." 

That  intensification  of  sky  light  in  some  areas,  celestial and terrestrial, is a very natural condition. And it is related to the following. As one looks at the massed luminous coals of a furnace  fire,  the  fire's  luminous  area, with  the  exception  of the  center, may under  intent observation be broken up  into viewable  formations.  The  center,  in  holding  the  concentrativc  force  of  the  fire  and  emitting  the  greatest  light, must defeat any effort  to  see  it as other  than a vast  concentration  of  impenetrable  light  and  heat. Nor  can  its  light  be dissipated.  If  the  observer  of  such  a  furnace  fire  were  at sufficient  distance, and  if  he  had  not  had  direct  experience with  such accumulation of heat and  light, he would be compelled  to  conclude  that  the  border  areas  of  the  fire  concentration  were  different  in substance  and  detached  from  the central area. Yet composition of the central area would be no different  than  the  fiery matter viewable at  the extremities of such  an  intense  luminous  center.  Every  area  would  be continuous with the center. 

Nevertheless, astro-mathematical calculations develop the fallacy  that  the  center  luminosity,  not  amenable  to  lens dissipation,  is  of  a  different model  and  is  isolated  from  the extremities  of  that  same  center.  Actually,  the  central  concentration  of  a  luminous  sky-gas  area  bears  the  same  relation  to  the  remainder  of  the  detected  sky  luminosity  as  the furnace-fire  center  is  related  to  the  extremities  of  the  fire accumulation.

The problem is resolved as follows. The gas mass of average  sky  light  is  readily  lens-detected  in  "star"  proportion, whereas extraordinary gas mass content prohibits lens dissipation of the sky  light. Accordingly, there can be  lens detection and "star" formation only of those parts of the luminousarea having  less  concentration  than  the  central area. Hence the center invites the conclusion that it is a remote "body".

The  furnace-fire  center  invited  the  same  conclusion. Hence the  entire  area  is  a "nebula." And  in  a Universe  of  reality, any "nebula"  is but an aspect of  luminous  sky gas and  light manifested throughout the entire Universe. 

The fascinating feature of sky-light formations from sky-gas motion becomes a double feature as we review  the 1946 rocket camera's accomplishments. On that occasion a corresponding  "cloud"  formation  was  photographed  within  the luminous  sky  area  over White  Sands,  New Mexico.  It  was also  erroneously  claimed  to  be  a  formation  in  the  stratosphere.  Hence  if  it  were  of  stratosphere  formation,  the astronomer would have to consider it a "nebula". 

Now it may be seen that something is about to happen to the mathematical astronomer's abstract figures and symbols of distance.  It  is  to be  recalled  that  such a white  cloud-like formation  was  developed  at  the  feeble  distance  of  ninety miles  from  the  stratosphere  photographing  point.  It  should also be recalled that a nebula" is the assumed mathematice-astronomical substance supposed to be observed only at vast distances  and  because  of  distance.  It  is  supposed  to  be  the stuff  of  which  "stars"  are  made.  Hence  stars"  are  being made in our own back yard. Marvelous Creation! 

Observe again how dangerously close astronomers come to the answer contained in lights of telescopic detection. Yet they  will  not  see  that  the  so-called  "nebula"  is  part  of celestial and  terrestrial  sky  light and  that  its detection anywhere is an expression of sky-gas function.   

It  matters  little  if  the  original  claim  concerning  the stratosphere  photograph  is  retracted.  It  holds  that  a  white area of the photograph is a "nebula" in the stratosphere and that the white patch was detached from the remainder of the photograph  of  terrestrial  sky.  The  self-evident  fact  is  that such a formation cannot possibly be considered remote from the  remainder of a  sky area photographed at a dis-tance of only  ninety  miles.  If  it  were  remote  it  would  not  have appeared as part of the photograph, as it did. 

Whatever  determination  is made  of  that white patch in the  luminous  sky  area  over White  Sands,  it  demancA  the discard of at  least  50 percent of astro-mathematical deductions  concerning  the  structure  of  the Universe  and what is taking place throughout the Universe. What that U.S. Naval Research  Bureau  rocket  camera  developed  cannot  simultaneously be considered "nebula" and "not nebula." It cannot  represent  something possible only at unfathomable distance and at  the  same  time be proved  to  exist  in  terrestrial sky  light  less  than one hundred miles away  from  the photographing point.

While  such  sky-gas  formations  were  concluded  to  exist only at assumed distance  the mind  cannot grasp, and while they were  assumed  to  be  celestial  entities  unrelated  to  terrestrial  sky-gas  development,  the  astronomical  conclusion that they were detached from luminous celestial areas had to be  accepted.  Hence  they  were  undisputedly  established  as elements  of  the  astronomer's  so-called  interstellar  space. And  with  the  assumption  that  they were  contained  in  that space  rather  than  in  the  detected  celestial  light,  they were assumed to be building material for so-called "stars". 

The  singular  feature of  this  immediate exposition  is  that the astronomer, by concluding  that his so-called "nebula"  is building material for "stars, moves in a centuries-long course toward admission that Physical Continuity is a reality. But the astronomer  does  not  know  he  has  admitted  it.  If  the astronomer's  "nebula"  builds  "stars,"  it  is  gas  accumulation.  And  Physical  Continuity  shows  how  terrestrial  and celestial  sky-gas  accumulation  must  ever  be  considered "stars"  and  planets."  However,  the  meeting  of  theory's abstract  course  with  the  course  of  reality  here  described would nrove to be too simple for complicated astronomy. 

It  should  here  be  related  that  when  the  early  Universe interpreters prepared the foundation for the elaborate astronomical  framework  they  could  in  no  way  anticipate  the rocket's  development  and  its  sensational  performance.  Its camera's stratosphere photographs have shattered considerable of the suppositive astronomical fabric. And as rocket camera  photographs  have  been  responsible  for  such magnificent  accomplishment,  they  have  brought  the  realistic celestial structure much closer  to  the  terrestrial. They have also accentuated  the pace of modern man's conquest of  the universe about us.   

In  the  foregoing  reference  to  lens  penetration  and  dissipation  of  celestial  sky-light  concentration,  the  word  "penetration'' implies only lens ability to grasp such luminous area for the purpose  of  recording  it.  It  is a  case  of penetrating  into  the luminous surface but not through the light accumu-lation of any sky-light area, celestial or terrestrial. No lens can be expected to penetrate  through sky light at' the ab-struse distances conjured by astro-mathematics. 

Particularly  does  such  apply  when  it  has  been  conclusively  proved,  by  the  stratosphere  ascensions  of  1931  and 1935 and by rocket-camera photographs since 1946, that sky light cannot be penetrated  through at a distance of  less  than one mile  in  the first case and at ninety  to one hundred and ninety  miles  in  the  latter  case.  Hence  the  necessarily  oft-repeated  description  of  lens  function  must  hold.  No telescopic  lens  can  penetrate  through  celestial  or  terrestrial sky  light and detect  the underlying  land.  If  lenses  could  so perform,  and  if  their  findings  could  thereafter  penetrate certain  interpreting  substance,  all  the  celestial  problems would  have  been  resolved  when  the  first  telescope  was fashioned. 

This  account  of  lens  failure  to  penetrate  through  light presupposes  an  absence  of  the  light-penetrating  emulsion applicable  to photography. If  there  is a medium applicable to telescopy,  it represents a very recent development and  is unknown  to  this writer. However, even with application of such  a  light-penetrating  medium  to  the  camera  lens, the area photographed through light must be distorted, and use of the medium will be readily detected by evident distortion of land and foliage on the Earth's surface. 

The greatest boon  to mankind, other  than  the secret of overcoming  death,  would  be  the  invention  which  might permit telescopic observation of that which is under every light  detected  in  the  universe  about  us.  Then  this  volume might not be necessary.   

In  what  might  be  considered  a  capitulation  to  reason, there  is  observed  the  measure  of  penetrating  into,  but  not through,  the celestial  sky-light  surface astronomically designated "nebula M-31 in Andromeda". That celestial sky light has  already  received  some  attention  here. Though  the  land exists under such a sky-light area, there can be no land consideration  by  astronomy,  which  deals  only  with  the  outer surface sky Light. A much different story would be unfolded by astronomy if telescopic lenses could penetrate celestial sky light, particularly at the distances supposed to be involved. 

At  the  aforementioned  celestial  sky-light  point,  the mathematical  astronomers  estimate  a  "nebula"  accumulation  weighing  thirty-five  hundred  million  times  the  Sun's mathematized weight.  If  one  dotes  on  figures,  such  figures should be  impressive, even  if no  light or Sun existed for  the figures of comparison. As such colossal figures are presented, it is asserted that the "nebula" mass can he dissipated under lens magnification. However, in this  instance, the manner of dissipation  merits  qualification.  No  area  of  sky  gas  is  dispersed by a  lens,  but  the  fact of  seeming dissipation  is  sufficient to establish that the telescopic lens detects nothing but luminous sky gas. 

This dissipation in no way implies penetration. It is but a superficial  dissipation  likened  to  the  dissipation  of  an impenetrable  fog  bank  experienced  on  the  Earth's  surface. Though the fog bank is not to be penetrated by the optic lens, its outer  areas may  in  various manner be dissipated.  If  the fog  bank  could  be  dissipated  at  our  will,  it  would  not  be impenetrable. If it could be dissipated in the true sense of the word, we could see beyond it. Therefore, we could not say the fog had been penetrated. 

The telescopic lens cannot and does not dissipate sky gas to  permit  penetration.  Were  such  possible,  the  land underlying  the  sky  gas would  be detected. But  since  astronomical conclusions do not seem to approximate such reasoning, we will pursue astronomical deduction as the astronomer would have it: 

1)  This assumed "nebula" mass, which  is really sky-gas cloud over a celestial land area, is mathematized as feeing thirty-five  hundred  million  times  the  unknown  Suns  mass  and weight,  assumed  to  be  known  through  the  same  abstract mathematical procedure.

2)  And  the  light  of  such  a  "nebula" mass  can  be  dissipated, but  not penetrated,  over  a  cosmic  distance  assumed  to  be only  a  feeble  nine hundred  thousand  light-years. This impressive  astronomical  light-year  is  the  distance  a  ray  of light  is  assumed  to  travel during  the  course  of  our known year of  three hundred  and  sixty-five days while moving at the  speed  of  186,000 miles  eveiy  second  of  that  year. That yearly distance is a trivial six  trillion miles. Now that single light-year distance need only be multiplied by nine hundred thousand. 

Though  one  cannot  possibly  conceive  a  fraction  of  such distance, one may now easily realize precisely how a telescope lens  can  detect  and  dissipate  light  existent  at  such  distance. One  may  also  have  full  realization  why  the  lens  cannot penetrate celestial sky light. 

Caution  seems  to dictate  that  one not  attempt  to  visualize such  distance  or  the manner whereby  a  telescope  lens might detect and dissipate light over such an inconceivable dis-tance, yet  lack  the  power  to  penetrate  it.  Though  there  could  be double, triple, or a trillion times such inconceivable distance to infinity, there is no lens created and none that could be created to  detect  light  over  a  distance  mathematized  as  a  small fraction  of  one  light-year,  to  say  nothing  of  nine  hundred thousand light-years. 

Such distances do not exist for realistic entities in a world of reality. They exist only in and for the abstract Universe of the abstract mathematician.

A ray of light is most factual. A telescope lens is a realistic entity in spite of its inherent error. And the established...
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As it is with the child's mind, so  it is with the astronomer's mind, which  causes him  to  express  the words curving, wooing, bending, fluctuating, tuad undulating. They should af-ford ample knowledge that creative energy at work does not circle. And they should be a key for understanding that  globes  or  spheres  do  not  comprise  the  celestial  or  the terres-trial. Yet,  despite  the  astronomer's  broader observation and deeper calculations of luminous celestial sky gases  in motion, he demands  that unseen mass "bodies" be prescribing all motion, and the wrong motion.

The undeveloped child  could be  shown  realistic pictures of  baby  delivery  and,  through  domination  of  the  fable,  remain ignorant of reality. So It is with the astronomer who, in viewing  physical  proof  at  hand  of  the  fallacy  of  "isolated bodies", persists  in clinging  to  the "star" and "planet"  fable. And he makes every effort  to fit proofs culled  from a world of  reality  into  his  world  of  illusions.  The  illusory  must  be preserved at any cost It is the astronomer's truth.

There  is not a feature of telescopic observation and photography, and of spectrum analysis, considered applicable to the universe about us which does not apply with equal force and  volume  to  corresponding  tests  of  tne  Earth's  outer luminous sky surface. Yet ... modern enterprise has established  that  such  absurd  features  are  purely  illusory.  And they do not apply.

All  the  fantastic  entities  assumed  to  exist  throughout luminous celestial sky areas seem to exist in like observation and  analysis  of  the  constantly  shifting  gases  of  the Earth's sky.  And  it  must  never  be  forgotten  that  all  observations, analysis, and resulting conclusions apply only  to  the  sky-gas energy of celestial and terrestrial sky-ljght areas. There is no application whatever to the land under such sky-light areas.

The  cosmic  agency  which  contributes  to  the  many  deceptive  movements  of  the  least  luminous  and  the  most luminous  sky  areas  is  responsible  for  the Light  shifts,  fluctuations and undulations. And  it  thereby  indirectly governs the resulting grotesque formations so deceiving to the observer.  That  cosmic  agency  and  creative  force,  beyond astronomy's embrace,  is cosmic-ray activity.  It  is constantly bombarding every outer sky area of the entire.Universe. The rays have no directional pattern. They are not  restricted  to any course or channel  in  their ceaseless movement  throughout  the  infinite  realm-of  darkness,  of which  our  immediate stratosphere is a part.

Sown  by  the Master  Planter,  they  are  strewn  from  the Sun's impenetrable crater in a seeming helter-skelter. And in such  apparent  nonconformity  to  pattern,  they  establish  the most  profound  creative  pattern. Moving  with  immunity  to man-made  laws  applied  to  the  Universe,  they  affiliate with receptive outer sky areas everywhere along the celestial and the  terrestrial  course.  They  charge  one  sky  area  and supercharge another with their magnetic force. As their force is concentrated on a particular sky area of the celestial or the terrestrial,  there  is  developed  within  that  sky  area  an unprecedented  accentuation  of  customary  motion  which befuddles  distant  observers.  In  other  sky  areas,  and  at  the same  time,  the  dispensation  of  that  creative  solar  energy remains stable  in a perfecting balance of the whole Universe sky. But  concentration  of  force  upon  one  sky  area  exerts  a measurable influence on neighboring sky areas. Hence  there  is  produced  for  the  bewitching  of  mortal mind a unique  series of morions within  luminous  sky areas under  observation.  But  whether  such  motions  are  real  or fancied,  they are always motions of  the  sky. Never are  they motions of the realistic land, which, though unseen, is always present under the sky light.

Reason dictates  that one does not erect a roof unless one is  to have a house under  the roof. The roof  is  the protecting medium  for  all  the Wood or  concrete  structure underlying. The  roof  is  symbolic  of  the  structure. And  the magnificent but deceptive  lights of astronomical observation and  record are areas of a creative roof which cannot be seen as a collective  and  continuous  whole  for  the  reasons  explained  here. Our terrestrial sky covers our room of the Universe House in the same manner as every so-called "star" and "planet" covers  the  endless  celestial  rooms  of  the  same  house.  Our sky, in common with all celestial sky, cannot be observed as a connected unit. It likewise presents to distant observers the identical pattern  of  varving  luminosity and motion  that we observe  of  the  celestial  sky. The  astronomer  expresses  that factual  sky-light  variation  of  the  celestial  roof  as  "star magnitude". And  that  term  Is  synonymous with "sky-light intensity".

That  causative  activity,  of  which  so  little  has  been learned,  performs  other  wonders  implied  by  the  late  Dr. Robert  Andrews  Millikan's  memorable  announcement: "Creative  Life  Force  is  at  work  throughout  the  entire Universe". But the wonders of that Force at work are not to be determined by abstract figures and symbols of figures.


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